Skip to content

Source code#

Use these repositories to get a sense of what windows might be doing underneath the covers


Windows Kernel Syscall Notes#

Ntxxx vs Zwxxx#

  • These are tiny syscall wrappers that enter the kernel
  • User Mode initiated syscalls: are synonyms
  • Kernel Mode drivers: handle parameters differently

Function Prefixes#

Reference from

Prefix Function
Cc Cache manager
Cm Configuration manager; registry implementation
Csr Client Server support functions(LPC; related: CSRSS.EXE)
Dbg Debugger support functions
Etw Extended tracing … support functions (???)
Ex Executive
Fs File system support functions
Hal Hardware abstraction layer functions
Inbv Something like: _In_itial _B_oot _V_ideo functions (???)
Io I/O manager support functions
Kd Kernel debugger support functions
Ke Ki = Kernel External/Internal
Ks Kernel Streams
Ldr PE image loader support functions
Lpc LPC support functions
Lsa Local security authority support functions
Mm Memory manager support functions
Nt NT Native API/Syscall implementations
Nls Native language support functions
Ob Object manager functions
Pfx Name prefix support functions /container for strings
Po Power management support functions
Ps Process management support functions
Rtl Runtime library functions (called from usermode;equiv of implementations of the c-runtime)
Rtlp Private runtime library functions
Se Security support functions
Tm Transaction manager
Wmi Windows management instrumentation support functions
Vf Driver verifier function
Zw Zero Warranty (Native API equiavlents for driver; tiny pieces of code which call syscalls, thus re-entering the kernel.)

Last update: December 4, 2019