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Python basics


import pprint

pprint.pprint(randomObj.\_\_dict\_\_)          =>     Prints all the attributes & their values in an object

dir(randomObj)                                   =>     enumerates attributes & methods in an object

inspect(module)                                 =>     Allows you to inspect a module

Import statements:#

Absolute vs. Relative Import

  • An absolute import uses the full path (starting from the project’s root folder) to the desired module to import.

  • A relative import uses the relative path (starting from the path of the current module) to the desired desired module to import. There are two types of relative imports:

  • explicit relative import follows the format from .<module/package> import X, where <module/package> is prefixed by dots . that indicate how many directories upwards to traverse. A single dot . corresponds to the current directory; two dots .. indicate one folder up; etc.

  • Implicit: deprecated. Don’t use

  • Use absolute imports rooted at the test/ directory (i.e. middle column in the table above). This guarantees that running directly will always work. In order to run directly, we can modify sys.path in to include test/packA/, before sa2 is imported.

 import os, sys


Now this works, even when is run directly#

from packA.subA import sa2



import os

os.environ['HOME'] will retrieve the environment variable. os.environ is a dictionary

os.environ.get('KEY') will return None if the key doesn't exist instead of raising KeyError

Directory Traversal:#

You can use glob:

import glob 
import os 
os.chdir("/mydir")for file in glob.glob("*.txt"): 
print file

or simply os.listdir:

import os 
for file in os.listdir("/mydir"): 
if file.endswith(".txt"): 
print file

or if you want to traverse directory:

import os 
for root, dirs, files in os.walk("/mydir"): 
for file in files: 
if file.endswith(".txt"):

print os.path.join(root, file)

List immediate child subdirectories:

next(os.walk('.')) [1]

Reference From

Convert Path:#

Renaming Script in directory and append number based on name sort order:#

import os, glob

files = glob.glob('/Users/ikrima/src/MythlyRepos/CineX/Photogrammetry/CineX/TAJA/Distortion/renames/*.tif')


for i in xrange(0, len(files)):

filename,ext = os.path.splitext(os.path.basename(files[i]))

os.rename(files[i], os.path.join(os.path.dirname(files[i]), filename + ".%07d" % i + ext))

Executing shell commands#

os.system("some_command with args")

Reference From

import subprocess

proc = subprocess.Popen(["cat", "/tmp/baz"], stdout=subprocess.PIPE) 
(out, err) = proc.communicate() 
print "program output:", out

Directory/Filesystem Traversal:#


Object as dictionary:#

obj = Foo()


Unzip List of Tuples:#

zipper_list = [(1, 'a'), (2, 'b'), (3, 'c')]

list_a, list_b = zip(*zipper_list)
Unicode string u’bla’
Unescaped r’bla\d’
String interpolation with formatting f’

String Formatting:#

f’This is inline string interpolation {bla:10}’


f'{a:02}' => '01'S

The general form of a standard format specifier is:

[[fill]align] [sign] [#] [0] [minimumwidth] [.precision] [type]

Reference From

[[fill]align][sign] [#][0] [width][,] [.precision][type] where, the options are fill ::= any character align ::= “<” | “>” | “=” | “^” sign ::= “+” | “-” | ” ” width ::= integer precision ::= integer type ::= “b” | “c” | “d” | “e” | “E” | “f” | “F” | “g” | “G” | “n” | “o” | “s” | “x” | “X” | “%”

Reference From

Last update: November 14, 2019